Participle Clauses

Reduced Relative Clauses

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We can use participle clauses after a noun in the same way as relative clauses. This gives more information about the noun. We sometimes call this a 'reduced relative clause'.

1: A present participle (verb + ing) can be used in the same way as an active relative clause:

The present participle can replace any active tense, not just the present continuous tense:

2: A past participle can be used in the same way as a simple passive relative clause:

3: 'Being + past participle' can be used in the same way as a continuous passive relative clause:

Things to notice:

1: We generally don't use perfect participles ('having + past participle') in this case.

2: We can't use this kind of participle clause if we're talking about one finished action which is not repeated:

Instead, we use a normal relative clause:

Try an exercise!

Participle Clauses Exercise 1
Participle Clauses Exercise 2

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